Archive for the ‘clinical tips’ Category

A small material on Janosia Ashoka


(Bark of an Indian Tree, introduced by Dr. N. D. Ray, Calcutta)


Mother Tincture (F)

Drug Strength 1/10

Janosia Ashoka in moderatelycoarse powder             100 g

Purified Water            125 ml

Strong Alcohol            900 ml

  • In Sanskrit Ashoka or Raktapallava; Bengali, Hindi, Oriya and Telegu Ashok; Gujrati Ashupani; Tamil and Malayalam Ashogam; Latin Sacara Ind. or Jenosia Ashoka.
  • This drug has been accepted by the therapies of Allopathy, Homoeopathy, Hekimi etc. with the names of Ashoka cordiel; Tin Ashoka; vibro Ashoka; Ashoka compound.
  • It is used in disorder related to menstural cycle and axis.
  • According to Ayurveda, intake of bark of Ashoka with boiled milk is a remedy for menstrual disorders. It is also helpful in dysmenorrhoea.
  • It is also known as a nourishing tonic for uterus.

Various clinical conditions in which Ashoka is used:-

  1. Leucorrhoea
  2. Amenorrhoea
  3. Metorrhagia
  4. Menorrhagia
  5. Uterine colic
  6. UTIs
  7. Haemorrhoides
  8. Relflex headaches arising due to uterine pathology

Dosage: Tincture to low potencies


  1. Varma P. N., Indu V., Encyclopedia of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia
  2. P. Banerjee, Materia Medica of Indian Drugs
  3. Boericke W., Pocket manual of Materia Medica

Diet Soda May Heighten Risk for Vascular Events

February 9, 2011 (Los Angeles, California) — Diet soda may not be the healthier alternative many had hoped. A new study suggests that the popular drinks may increase the risk for stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death.

“People who had diet soda every day experienced a 61% higher risk of vascular events than those who reported drinking no soda,” lead investigator Hannah Gardener, ScD, an epidemiologist from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida, told reporters attending a news conference here at the International Stroke Conference.

The risk persisted after controlling for metabolic syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, and cardiac disease history (relative risk, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 – 2.12).

“This is the first report of this association,” said American Stroke Association national spokesperson Larry Goldstein, MD. “I think that it’s always good to do things in moderation. People should look at this information and consider it in the context of their other risk factors.”

The researchers looked at more than 2500 people from the multiethnic Northern Manhattan Study. Participants were asked to report how much and what kind of soda they drank.

During an average follow-up of 9.3 years, 559 vascular events occurred, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

The researchers also observed a marginally significant increased risk for vascular events among those who consumed diet soda daily and regular soda once or more a month (adjusted relative risk, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 – 3.16).

As reported by Medscape Medical Newsprevious studies have suggested a link between diet soda consumption and the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. But this is the first time diet drinks have been associated with vascular events.

“This is an observational study and not a prospective randomized trial,” Dr. Goldstein, from the Duke Stroke Center, in Durham, North Carolina, pointed out. “This is an association and not yet a proven causal relationship.”

The investigators acknowledge that additional studies are needed. The potential mechanisms for the association between diet soda and vascular events remain unknown.

What should clinicians advise patients on the basis of the information we have today? Steven Greenberg, MD, from Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, suggests that patients start by concentrating on a healthy diet and regular exercise. “Once the metabolic syndrome is under control and any risk of diabetes, then we can consider cutting back on soda consumption.” Dr. Greenberg is the vice chair of the International Stroke Conference Committee, and during an interview he suggested that patients shouldn’t rush to eliminate diet drinks.

“I do think this is a wake-up call, though,” he said, “and we need to start paying closer attention.”

This study was funded by the Javits award from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Evelyn McKnight Brain Institute. The researchers have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

American Stroke Association International Stroke Conference. Abstract # P55. News conference February 9, 2011.

Hemochromatosis-Contributed by Dr Gurjit Kaur


Contributed by: Dr Gurjit Kaur

E-mail id:


Hemochromatosis is a metabolic disorder that results in excess deposits of iron in the liver, pancreas, and other iron-storing organs.


Hemochromatosis can cause cirrhosis of the liver, jaundice, diabetes, enlarged heart, congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeats, or arrhythmias. Loss of libido and testicular atrophy result from pituitary failure. Other, less common symptoms include abdominal pain, and arthritis.



Treatment involves the removal of 500 milliliters (about 15 ounces) of blood weekly until normal plasma iron levels are established. After that, blood is removed every 3 or 4 months to maintain normal iron levels.

Occasionally, anemia results from removal of the blood. When this occurs, the chelating agent deferoxamine is given to prevent anemia. Patients should adhere to a low-iron diet, avoiding foods such as liver, red meats, or iron-enriched breads and cereals.


Homoeopathic treatment

Symptomatic treatment is required for the condition.

Some useful homoeopathic medicines for such condition:-

Ars, cal-p, china, chin-a, cupr, ferr, ferr-p, hep, iod, ipecac, merc, nat-m, puls, sulph, Thea, Verrat, zinc.

DIAGNOSIS BY NAILS – Contributed by: Dr Gurjit Kaur


Fingernails and What They Reveal

Dr. Gabrielle Traub

“Ridges can signify a possible infection such as the flu.”


Contributed by: Dr Gurjit Kaur

E-mail id:


Please acknowledge the author and contributor. Please share the link to someone whom you want to share it with.



1. BEAU’S LINES: Transverse depressions. Occurs when growth at the nail root (matrix) is interrupted by any severe acute illness e.g. heart attack, measles, pneumonia, or fever. These lines emerge from under the nail folds weeks later, and allow us to estimate when the patient was sick.


  • NAILS; corrugated; transversely: ars., med


2. MEE’S LINES: Transverse white lines that run across the nail, following the shape of the nail moon. Uncommon. Causality: after acute/severe illness, Arsenic poisoning.

Repertory: Ars alb


3. VERTICAL RIDGES: (Lengthwise grooves or ridges) – may indicate a kidney disorder (kidney failure); associated with ageing; iron deficiency (Anemia). May indicate a tendency to develop arthritis


  • NAILS; roughness fingernails; ridges, longitudinal: fl-ac.
  • NAILS; roughness fingernails; ribbed: thuj.
  • NAILS; corrugated: ars., calc., calc-f., fl-ac., med., ph-ac., sabad., sel., Sil., thuj.



1. CLUBBING OF THE FINGERS: fingertips widen and become round. Nails curve around your fingertips, more convex. Proximal nail fold feels spongy. Caused by enlargement in connective tissue as compensation for a chronic lack of oxygen. e.g. severe emphysema Lung disease is present in 80 percent of people who have clubbed fingers. It may also appear in chronic infections especially abscesses, lung cancer, chronic lung (chronic bronchitis, emphysema) and heart disease, longstanding TB, congenital heart disease, cyanotic, primary biliary cirrhosis.

Repertory: nit-ac., tub.

  • Curved fingernails; consumption, in: med., tub.


2. PITTING: Small pits or depressions. It is a most common nail problem seen in 25 percent to 50 percent of people with psoriasis


  • Extremities; NAILS; holes in: ars.
  • Psoriasis – pitting, onycholysis, thickening, circumscribed yellowish tan discoloration “oil spot” lesion.


3. SPOON NAIL: Soft nails that look scooped out. Depression is usually large enough to hold a drop of liquid. Often indicates iron deficiency anemia.

Repertory: Extremities; NAILS; complaints of; depressed: med.


4. ONYCHOLYSIS: Lifting of the nail from the nail bed. Causes: trauma, psoriasis, drug reactions, bacterial/fungal infection, contact dermatitis from using nail hardeners, thyroid disease, iron deficiency anemia or syphilis.

Repertory: Looseness fingernails: apis., med., pyrog., ust.



1. NAIL HYPERTROPHY: Thickening of the nail. Either congenital (e.g. Mal de Meleda) or acquired – The nail becomes deformed with claw like appearance. Causes: Not cutting the nails, trauma, Leprosy, peripheral vascular disorders.


  • NAILS; hypertrophy: calc-f., fl-ac., graph., laur.
  • NAILS; thick: alum., anan., ant-c., ars., but-ac., calc., calc-f., calo., caust., falco-p., ferr., fl-ac., Graph., merc., pitu-a., pop-c., sabad., sec., sep., Sil., sulph., ust., x-ray


2. NAIL ATROPHY: The nail becomes thin, rudimentary and smaller size congenital or acquired. Causes: Lichen planus, Epidermolysis bullosa, Darrier‘s disease, vascular disturbances, Leprosy.


  • NAILS; atrophic: sil.
  • NAILS; grow, do not: ant-c., pitu-a., rad-br., sil.


3. NAIL PATELLA SYNDROME: a rare genetic disorder, occurs in 2.2 out of every 100,000 people and causes abnormalities in the bones and nails. autosomal dominant. Carried by the ABO blood group. Nails present as small and concave, longitudinally grooved, abnormally split, pitted, softened, discolored, or brittle.


Remedies: Thuja, Graphites, Calc-flour, Syph.

H; Hands; NAILS, fingers, general; grow, nails, do not: ant-c., calc., sil.



1. LINDSAY’S NAILS (HALF AND HALF) — Look for an arc of brownish discoloration. May occur in a small percentage of people who have kidney failure. Internal diseases and nutritional deficits can cause changes in the appearance of the nails.


2. TERRY’S NAILS: The nail looks opaque and white, but the nail tip has a dark pink to brown band. May accompany cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, adult-onset diabetes, cancer or ageing.


3. CYANOSIS: A bluish discoloration visible at the nail bases in select patient with severe hypoxemia or hypoperfusion. As with clubbing, it is not at all sensitive for either of these conditions.


  • H; Hands; NAILS, fingers, general; discoloration, nails; blueness (59) : acon., aesc., agar., apis, apoc., arg-n., arn., ars., asaf., aur., cact., camph., carbn-s., carb-v., chel., chin., chin-ar., chin-s., chlf., cic., cocc., colch., con., cupr., dig., dros., eup-pur., ferr., ferr-ar., ferr-p., gels., gins., graph., ip., manc., merc., merc-s., mez., mur-ac., nat-m., nit-ac., Nux-v., op., ox-ac., petr., ph-ac., phos., plb., rhus-t., sang., sars., sep., sil., sulph., sumb., tarent., thuj., Verat., verat-v.



Inflammation of the nail folds, which appear red, swollen and tender. The cuticle may not be visible. Causes: fungal infection, secondary bacterial infection, people who’s hands are often in water are more susceptible.


  • Hands; NAILS, fingers, general; panaritium, nails (53) : all-c., alum., Am-c., am-m., anac., Anthr., Apis, arn., asaf., bar-c., benz-ac., berb., bov., bufo, calc., caust., chin., cist., con., cur., Dios., eug., ferr., Fl-ac., gins., Hep., hyper., iod., iris, kali-c., kalm., lach., led., lyc., merc., Myris., nat-c., nat-h., nat-m., nat-s., Nit-ac., par., petr., phyt., plb., puls., rhus-t., sang., sep., Sil., sulph., Tarent-c., teucr.
  • NAILS; pulp, of; nails recede, leave raw surface: sec.
  • Redness; fingernails: apis, ars., cortiso., crot-c., lepi., lith-c., ozone, upa., x-ray
  • Inflammation, fingernails; around: con., hell., kola., nat-m., nat-s., ph-ac., sil.
  • Hands; NAILS, fingers, general; fungus, under (4) : ant-c., graph., petr., thuj.
  • Hands; NAILS, fingers, general; inflammation, fingernails (1) : kali-c.
  • Hands; NAILS, fingers, general; inflammation, fingernails; root of (2) : hep., stict.



Looks like a splinter underneath the nail, virtually 100% diagnostic of Sub-acute Bacterial Endocarditis (SBE). A bacterial infection affecting the valves of the heart. Occasionally caused by Trichinosis, a parasitic infection caused by eating raw or undercooked Pork.


  • Diseases; ENDOCARDITIS, heart: abrot., acet-ac., Acon., Ars., ars-i., Aur., aur-m., bism., bry., cact., calc., cocc., coc-c., colch., dig., ferr., iod., kali-ar., kali-c., kali-i., Kalm., lach., led., nat-m., naja, ox-ac., phos., phyt., plat., plb., sep., Spig., spong., tarent., verat-v.
  • Diseases; TRICHINOSIS (3) : ars., bapt., cina



Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow or green nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). May be associated with swelling of the hands and feet (lymphoedema), or a lung diseases e.g. chronic bronchitis. Yellow nails can indicate internal disorders long before other symptoms appear. Some of these are problems with the lymphatic system, respiratory disorders, diabetes, and liver disorders.


  • NAILS: discoloration; yellowish: am-c., ambr., ant-c., ars., aur., bell., bry., calc., canth., carb-v., caust., cham., chel., chin., Con., ferr., hep., ign., lyc., merc., nit-ac., nux-v., op., plb., puls., Sep., Sil., spig., sulph.



Caused by trauma to the nails, over vigorous/excessive manicuring

Repertory: alum., ars., nit-ac., ozone, sep., Sil., sulph., thal.



Vertical pigmented bands or nail ‘moles‘. A sudden change in the nail plate could indicate a malignant melanoma or lesion. Commonly occur in dark-skinned people, and are normal.



  • Hypothyroidism: brittle nails – which separate easily from the nail bed (Onycholysis) accompanied by dry, yellowish skin, fatigue, slow pulse, chilly, coarse hair that falls out.
  • Hyperthyroidism: brittle nails – which separate easily from the nail bed (Onycholysis) and are concave (spoon nails)
  • Brittle nails – may also suggest iron deficiency anemia, kidney and circulatory problems.


  • NAILS; brittle: alum., alum-sil., ambr., anan., ant-c., ars., but-ac., calc., calc-f., cast-eq., caust., clem., cupr., dios., fl-ac., Graph., hep., hydrog., lept., lyc., med., merc., morg., nat-m., nit-ac., ozone, phos., Psor., rad-br., ruta, sabad., sec., sel., senec., sep., sil., spig., squil., sulph., syc-co., thuj., tub., x-ray
  • Nails that chip, peel, crack, or break easily – suggest a nutritional deficiency, lacking hydrochloric acid, protein or minerals.
  • NAILS: cracked: ant-c., ars., lach., nat-m., sil.
  • Crumbling away of fingernails: but-ac.{Butyric acid: a volatile acid obtained from butter}
  • NAILS; scatter like powder when cut: sil.



  • Liver Diseases: White Nails
  • Kidney Diseases: Half of nail is pink, half is white
  • Heart Conditions: Nail bed is red
  • Lung Diseases: Yellowing and thickening of the nail, slowed growth rate
  • Anemia: Pale nail beds
  • Diabetes: Yellowish nails, with a slight blush at the base
  • Nutritional deficiencies

o   Vitamin A and calcium deficiencies – dry brittle nails.

o   Vitamin B deficiency – horizontal and vertical ridges, that break easily.

o   Vitamin B12 deficiency – dry, darkened nails with rounded and curved nail ends.

o   Protein deficiency – white bands


Ayurveda considers nails as the waste product of the bones.

Dry, crooked, rough nails that break easily indicates a predominance of the Vata constitution.

Soft, pink, tender nails that are easily bent are indication of a Pitta constitution.

Thick, strong, soft and shiny nails indicate a Kapha constitution.

Longitudinal lines: indicate inability of the digestive system to absorb food properly.

Transverse grooves: may indicate the presence of long-standing illness or malnutrition.

Yellow nails: alert us to liver problems or jaundice.

Blue nails: indicate a weak heart.

Redness: shows an excess of red blood cells.



Author: Dr Gurjit Kaur
Email Id:

  • HIV can never survive in any other liquid medium also other than blood or semen (& please for God sake … never in Pani Puri wala pani)
  • Even if one drinks an HIV infected blood (or semen) of someone (ingest through Gastro Intestinal track), the virus can not survive in the acidic pH of stomach.
  • Highest extent of acidity is 0 (practically not possible) so imagine 1 as pH which is in our stomach. (This pH can burn your own finger in less than a second if you dip in that acid).
  • Exposure of less than 1 second in AIR KILLS the HIV virus(hence story of needle pricks in Cinema theatres is a crap). Even if blood from a wound (of infected person) dries up (*blood clot*), *the virus dies* and can not infect anyone else
  • HIV transmission is “ONLY” an “INFECTION” i.e.entrance of virus in one’s body. It *DOES NOT MEAN AIDS*.
  • An HIV-infected person (after entrance of virus) can progress to a condition of AIDS only after *8 to 10 YEARS * (not in 15 days as in the Pani Puri story)
  • It is *not HIV (virus) that kills a human* …..the virus attacks immune cells (cells that fight against foreign pathogens/antigens) and hence a person’s ability to fight against infections & diseases slowly diminishes and person ultimately dies of a disease which could be as simple as TB
  • Most importantly, HIV is no longer a dreadful disease … it is “CHRONIC MANAGEABLE DISEASE” just like Diabetes or Hypertension.
  • If there is anything you need to be careful from to prevent HIV is “Unsafe sex”, “Blood transfusion” (check before taking) / Blood donation (use sterilized needles only) and any “blood contact during an accident” or so where “amount of bleeding is very high.

Spread this message to avoid rumors and to educate people. It’s better to save someone’s life by educating him rather feeling ashamed of having discussed this issue.

Moderate Exercise Improves Memory in Older Adults

Moderate Exercise Improves Memory in Older Adults

Fran Lowry

February 3, 2011 — Aerobic exercise training that gets sedentary older adults up and walking for 40 minutes 3 times a week has been shown to increase the size of the hippocampus and improve memory after 1 year.

The findings appear in the January 31 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

“There are 2 very important messages to take home from this study,” lead investigator Kirk Erickson, PhD, professor of psychology at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, told Medscape Medical News. “The first is that the brain remains modifiable until late adulthood, and this gives us a lot of promise for interventions and treatments that could prevent or delay or even reverse atrophy of the brain. The second major message is that it’s never too late to start exercising.”

Dr. Erickson and his colleagues recruited 60 adults aged 60 to 80 years who got 30 minutes or less of physical activity per week to embark on a course of aerobic training that involved a program of brisk walking. A similar number of sedentary adults who served as controls were randomized to stretching and toning exercises.

“They were fairly inactive individuals, which is unfortunately very common in society, but nonetheless, we brought them in and started them walking. We first started them walking 10 to 15 minutes at a time because they were not used to exercise, and eventually we progressed them to about 40 minutes a day for 3 days a week and that lasted for a year,” he explained.

The participants were supervised, accompanied by trained personnel who monitored their heart rate and level of exertion. All had experienced some degree of brain atrophy although this had not yet progressed to a diagnosis of dementia, and were otherwise healthy, albeit with the usual complement of aches and pains typical for a population of this age, Dr. Erickson said.

In addition, all had to get approval from their personal physicians to participate in the study.

Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were collected before the intervention, after 6 months, and again after the completion of the program.

“MRI allowed us to get very high-resolution, detailed images of their brain, and then we were able to use some algorithms to segment out certain brain regions and calculate the size of the hippocampus,” Dr. Erickson said.

In addition, participants were given a memory test that measured their spatial memory at the same 3 time points in the study.

Both groups were similar with regard to their hippocampal volume and memory at baseline.

At the end of 1 year, participants in the aerobic exercise training group increased the volume of the left hippocampus by 2.12% and the right hippocampus by 1.97%, whereas the control group actually displayed a 1.40% and 1.43% decline in the left and right hippocampus, respectively.

The study also found that those in the aerobic exercise group showed improved memory function compared with their performance at the start of the study. This improvement was associated with the increased size of the hippocampus. Increased hippocampal volume was also associated with greater levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a small molecule involved in learning and memory.

“Up to now, we have never demonstrated that if we take people who are previously sedentary and give them exercise that we can actually increase the size of this region of the brain,” said Dr. Erickson.

“Clinicians should really try to get their older patients moving. It’s easy for us to think that exercise only exerts its effects on our bodies from the neck down, but clearly that’s not the case. Our brains are parts of our bodies, and we see the same types of benefits on our brains as we do our bodies. I think that is easily overlooked and something we don’t often think about.”

Cyrus Raji, MD, PhD, a researcher at the University of Pittsburgh who has conducted research on the benefits of exercise for Alzheimer’s disease, commented that the study is important because it shows in a very concrete way how beneficial exercise can be for seniors.

“This is a randomized clinical trial, which is the highest form of clinical investigation you can have. What was most exciting to me about the study is that they showed that the specific part of the hippocampus, the anterior part of the hippocampus, benefits the most from exercise training,” Dr. Raji, who was not part of the current study, told Medscape Medical News.

“This is important because Alzheimer’s disease is known to start in and target that part of the hippocampus. The finding helps explain how exercise can reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease and is another reason why everybody of all age groups, but especially the elderly, should, based on this study, engage in regular forms of physical activity.”

Dr. Erickson and Dr. Raji have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Published online January 31, 2011.



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