Archive for the ‘Research studies’ Category

Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism in an Indian population


Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism in an Indian population

Raman K. Marwaha, Nikhil Tandon, M.K. Garg, Ratnesh Kanwar, A. Sastry, A. Narang, Saurav Arora and Kuntal Bhadra

Abstract

Objectives

In view of inconsistent reports on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), we studied lipid abnormalities in Indian subjects with SCH.

Design and methods

A cross sectional study of 5343 subjects divided in two groups, Group-1 (age ? 18 years) and Group-2 (age > 18 years) was undertaken. They were further subdivided on the basis of their thyroid functional status: Normal (Control); SCH with TSH ? 10.0 mIU/L (SCH-1); and SCH with TSH > 10 mIU/L (SCH-2).

Results

Prevalence of SCH was 14.7%. The only lipid abnormality in children and adolescents was low HDL in subjects with TSH > 10 mIU/L compared with controls. Serum total cholesterol (TC), and LDL cholesterol (LDL) were significantly higher in adults with TSH > 10 mIU/L compared to controls. There were no significant changes in lipid parameters in subjects with SCH having TSH ? 10.0 mIU/L, compared to controls. Serum TSH was positively and FT3 and FT4 were negatively correlated with TC and LDL.

Conclusions

Atherogenic lipid abnormalities were observed in adult subjects with SCH-2 (TSH > 10.0 mIU/L), and not in subjects with SCH-1 who had TSH ? 10.0 mIU/L in Indian population.

Keywords: Subclinical hypothyroidism; Lipid profile; Anti-TPO antibodies

Science direct link to article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009912011014147

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Diet Soda May Heighten Risk for Vascular Events


February 9, 2011 (Los Angeles, California) — Diet soda may not be the healthier alternative many had hoped. A new study suggests that the popular drinks may increase the risk for stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death.

“People who had diet soda every day experienced a 61% higher risk of vascular events than those who reported drinking no soda,” lead investigator Hannah Gardener, ScD, an epidemiologist from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida, told reporters attending a news conference here at the International Stroke Conference.

The risk persisted after controlling for metabolic syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, and cardiac disease history (relative risk, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 – 2.12).

“This is the first report of this association,” said American Stroke Association national spokesperson Larry Goldstein, MD. “I think that it’s always good to do things in moderation. People should look at this information and consider it in the context of their other risk factors.”

The researchers looked at more than 2500 people from the multiethnic Northern Manhattan Study. Participants were asked to report how much and what kind of soda they drank.

During an average follow-up of 9.3 years, 559 vascular events occurred, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

The researchers also observed a marginally significant increased risk for vascular events among those who consumed diet soda daily and regular soda once or more a month (adjusted relative risk, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 – 3.16).

As reported by Medscape Medical Newsprevious studies have suggested a link between diet soda consumption and the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. But this is the first time diet drinks have been associated with vascular events.

“This is an observational study and not a prospective randomized trial,” Dr. Goldstein, from the Duke Stroke Center, in Durham, North Carolina, pointed out. “This is an association and not yet a proven causal relationship.”

The investigators acknowledge that additional studies are needed. The potential mechanisms for the association between diet soda and vascular events remain unknown.

What should clinicians advise patients on the basis of the information we have today? Steven Greenberg, MD, from Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, suggests that patients start by concentrating on a healthy diet and regular exercise. “Once the metabolic syndrome is under control and any risk of diabetes, then we can consider cutting back on soda consumption.” Dr. Greenberg is the vice chair of the International Stroke Conference Committee, and during an interview he suggested that patients shouldn’t rush to eliminate diet drinks.

“I do think this is a wake-up call, though,” he said, “and we need to start paying closer attention.”

This study was funded by the Javits award from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Evelyn McKnight Brain Institute. The researchers have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

American Stroke Association International Stroke Conference. Abstract # P55. News conference February 9, 2011.

Comparative Efficacy of Two Microdoses of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Arsenicum Album, to Ameliorate Toxicity Induced by Repeated Sublethal Injections of Arsenic Trioxide in Mice


Pathikrit Banerjee, Soumya Sundar Bhattacharyya, Surajit Pathak, Boujedaini Naoual, Philippe Belon, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Key Words Arsenic toxicity, Mice, Biomarkers, Homeopathy, Matrix metalloproteinase Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of 2 potentized homeopathic remedies of Arsenicum Album (Ars Alb) – 6C and 30C – in combating chronic arsenic toxicity induced by repeated sublethal injections in mice (Mus musculus) . Methods: Mice were randomized and divided into sets: (1) normal (control 1); (2) normal + succussed alcohol (control 2); (3) As 2 O 3 (0.016%) injected at 1 ml/100 g body weight every 7 days (treated); (4) As 2 O 3 injected + succussed alcohol (positive control); (5) As 2 O 3 injected + Ars Alb 6C (drug-fed); (6) As 2 O 3 injected + Ars Alb 30C (drug-fed). Cytogenetical endpoints like chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index, sperm head abnormality and biochemical protocols like acid and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and succinate dehydrogenase were studied at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Results: Compared to controls, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, sperm head abnormality frequencies and activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and lipid peroxi-dation were reduced in both drug-fed series, while mitotic index and activities of glutathione, catalase and succinate dehydrogenase were increased. Ars Alb 30C showed marginally better efficacy than Ars Alb 6C.Conclusion: Both remedies indicated potentials of use against arsenic intoxication.

The problem of dose in homeopathy: evaluation of the effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album 30cH on rats intoxicated with arsenic


The problem of dose in homeopathy: evaluation of the effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album 30cH on rats intoxicated with arsenic

Olney Leite Fontes1, Fátima Cristiane Lopes Goularte Farhat2, Amarilys Toledo Cesar1, Marilisa Guimarães Lara3,
Maria Imaculada Lima Montebelo1, Gabriela Cristina Gomes Rodrigues1, Marco Vinícius Chaud1.
(1) Methodist University of Piracicaba, (2) Medical School of Jundiaí
(3) Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto – USP

ABSTRACT

Background: Although scientific studies have confirmed the action of homeopathic high dilutions in living organisms an endless debate on the choice of the most fitting dilution, the frequency of administration and the dose (amount of medicine) still remains. Aims: This study sought to assess the in vivo effect of 2 different concentrations of Arsenicum album 30cH in order to elucidate some problems in the homeopathic notion of dose. Methods: Male Wistar rats previously intoxicated with sodium arsenate by peritoneal injection were treated with undiluted Ars 30cH and Ars 30cH in 1% solution administered by oral route. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the levels of arsenic retained in the animals as well as the amounts eliminated through urine. Urine samples were collected before and after and during treatment. A positive control group (intoxicated animals) and negative control group (non-intoxicated animals) were administered only the vehicle used to prepare the medicine (ethanol). Results: The groups treated with undiluted Ars 30cH and Ars 30cH in 1% solution eliminated significant amounts of arsenic through urine when compared to the control groups. The group treated with undiluted Ars 30cH eliminated significantly higher amounts of arsenic than the group treated with the same medicine in 1% solution. Conclusion: These results suggest that undiluted Ars 30cH was more effective than in 1% solution in this experimental model.

Keywords: Homeopathic medicines; Dose; Experimental model; Rats; Arsenic intoxication; Arsenicum album

 

Moderate Exercise Improves Memory in Older Adults


Moderate Exercise Improves Memory in Older Adults

Fran Lowry

February 3, 2011 — Aerobic exercise training that gets sedentary older adults up and walking for 40 minutes 3 times a week has been shown to increase the size of the hippocampus and improve memory after 1 year.

The findings appear in the January 31 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

“There are 2 very important messages to take home from this study,” lead investigator Kirk Erickson, PhD, professor of psychology at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, told Medscape Medical News. “The first is that the brain remains modifiable until late adulthood, and this gives us a lot of promise for interventions and treatments that could prevent or delay or even reverse atrophy of the brain. The second major message is that it’s never too late to start exercising.”

Dr. Erickson and his colleagues recruited 60 adults aged 60 to 80 years who got 30 minutes or less of physical activity per week to embark on a course of aerobic training that involved a program of brisk walking. A similar number of sedentary adults who served as controls were randomized to stretching and toning exercises.

“They were fairly inactive individuals, which is unfortunately very common in society, but nonetheless, we brought them in and started them walking. We first started them walking 10 to 15 minutes at a time because they were not used to exercise, and eventually we progressed them to about 40 minutes a day for 3 days a week and that lasted for a year,” he explained.

The participants were supervised, accompanied by trained personnel who monitored their heart rate and level of exertion. All had experienced some degree of brain atrophy although this had not yet progressed to a diagnosis of dementia, and were otherwise healthy, albeit with the usual complement of aches and pains typical for a population of this age, Dr. Erickson said.

In addition, all had to get approval from their personal physicians to participate in the study.

Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were collected before the intervention, after 6 months, and again after the completion of the program.

“MRI allowed us to get very high-resolution, detailed images of their brain, and then we were able to use some algorithms to segment out certain brain regions and calculate the size of the hippocampus,” Dr. Erickson said.

In addition, participants were given a memory test that measured their spatial memory at the same 3 time points in the study.

Both groups were similar with regard to their hippocampal volume and memory at baseline.

At the end of 1 year, participants in the aerobic exercise training group increased the volume of the left hippocampus by 2.12% and the right hippocampus by 1.97%, whereas the control group actually displayed a 1.40% and 1.43% decline in the left and right hippocampus, respectively.

The study also found that those in the aerobic exercise group showed improved memory function compared with their performance at the start of the study. This improvement was associated with the increased size of the hippocampus. Increased hippocampal volume was also associated with greater levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a small molecule involved in learning and memory.

“Up to now, we have never demonstrated that if we take people who are previously sedentary and give them exercise that we can actually increase the size of this region of the brain,” said Dr. Erickson.

“Clinicians should really try to get their older patients moving. It’s easy for us to think that exercise only exerts its effects on our bodies from the neck down, but clearly that’s not the case. Our brains are parts of our bodies, and we see the same types of benefits on our brains as we do our bodies. I think that is easily overlooked and something we don’t often think about.”

Cyrus Raji, MD, PhD, a researcher at the University of Pittsburgh who has conducted research on the benefits of exercise for Alzheimer’s disease, commented that the study is important because it shows in a very concrete way how beneficial exercise can be for seniors.

“This is a randomized clinical trial, which is the highest form of clinical investigation you can have. What was most exciting to me about the study is that they showed that the specific part of the hippocampus, the anterior part of the hippocampus, benefits the most from exercise training,” Dr. Raji, who was not part of the current study, told Medscape Medical News.

“This is important because Alzheimer’s disease is known to start in and target that part of the hippocampus. The finding helps explain how exercise can reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease and is another reason why everybody of all age groups, but especially the elderly, should, based on this study, engage in regular forms of physical activity.”

Dr. Erickson and Dr. Raji have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Published online January 31, 2011.

 

 

Latest in publication in “Homeopathy”


“Homeopathy” (formerly know as British Homeopathic Journal) latest issuse.

1. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective

2. Homeopathic prescribing for chronic conditions in feline and canine veterinary practice

3. Do serial dilutions really dilute?

4. 200 years Organon of Medicine – A comparative Review of its six editions (1810–1842)?

5. Homeopathic Symphytum officinale increases removal torque and radiographic bone density around titanium implants in rats

This study evaluated the effect of Symphytum officinale in homeopathic potency (6cH), on the removal torque and radiographic bone density around titanium implants, inserted in rats tibiae. Implants were placed in male rat tibiae, and the animals randomized to two groups (Control and S. officinale 6cH treated), which were evaluated at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days post-implantation. Radiographic bone density was measured at 6 points around the implant, using digital radiographic images, when implants were inserted and at sacrifice. Removal torque of the implants was also evaluated. Both removal torque and radiographic bone density evaluation showed that S. officinale 6cH treatment enhanced bone formation around the micro-implants, mainly at 14 days. At 56 days, the radiographic bone density was higher in the treated group. We conclude that S. officinale 6cH enhances, principally at the early stages of osseointegration, bone formation around titanium implants in rats’ tibiae, based on radiographic and mechanical analysis. Copyright © 2010 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2010.08.002

 

UTI during pregnancy_presented at HMAI National Congress 2010


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